Embedding Cassettes

Embedding cassettes are disposable plastic tissues cassettes that are made of polymers of high densities to process, store and embed tissue samples. They are used to study the tissues of human beings and utilized by those studying and taking part in pathology. Samples of tissues from a human’s body are used to study diseases and the impact that the disease may have had on another’s body. Surgeons and radiologists can use these tapes to take a tissue sample from a live person to analyze and determine the presence (and extent) of a disease in that person.

The tapes ensure that the tissues are safe and unaffected by its surroundings so that they can be studied and analyzed by scientists, doctors and pathologists. They are also used by agencies involved in crime investigation for analyses of how the victim was affected or to get a DNA sample of the criminal who may have had some sort of physical interaction with the victim. The tapes have a number of advantages and are used by people involved in the various fields of science. These tapes are resistant to the chemical reactions of those solvents which occur due to the existence of microscopic tissues of plants and animals and so, are ideal for storing and embedding tissue samples. Disposable base molds are available which fit these tapes snugly- they are inexpensive, yet strong and can be discarded safely after they are used. These cassettes come in a number of colors.

Embedding cassettes can be covered by stainless steel covers which, as the name suggests, are made of stainless steel and come with a hole, or a number of holes, and a slot allowing fluid exchange and drainage. These covers are made in such a way so that the top of the tape can snap over the top of the tape so that the specimen inside the tape is safe and can be used for sample processing in a consistent manner. Histology cassettes (also available in a range of colors) that are made of high density polymers come with a number of slots (allowing drainage of fluids and exchange of fluids as well) and are resistant to chemical solvents which ensure that the specimen is safe as they come with micro-locks.

Biopsy foam pads made of polyester foams allow solvent flow due to the presence of air pockets. This also prevents small and minute tissue samples from lost as they can be put in between the pads and placed in the cassettes.

Write-on markers can be used to help distinguish tapes from one another which would make a scientist’s (or whosoever is using the tapes) job much easier.
In conclusion, embedding tapes are advantageous and have many uses. Scientists and doctors use them to store and study tissue samples derived from a human being so that they can come up with ways to cure and eradicate a disease in the near future. Furthermore, agencies involved in the investigation of crime scenes can study and analyze the effect of a certain substance that may have been used on a victim (such as chloroform or other chemicals) to affect him/her mentally and physically. The features of the tapes allow them to store these samples safely for analysis and so, they are important in the field of research and development as well. Without these tapes the tissue samples derived from a person would be affected by its surroundings and it would be difficult to store the specimen and that would make it difficult for pathologists, scientists, doctors, radiologists, police departments and detectives to study human tissues and the impact of diseases and chemicals on a person/victim.

Science Behind Trivedi Effect

The Trivedi Science™

The “Trivedi Effect®” is a natural phenomenon that, when transmitted by an individual, has the ability to transform living organisms and non-living materials to perform at an elevated level to serve a greater purpose. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (commonly referred to as Mr. Guruji) was born with this unique ability to transform living and non-living matter. In 2009 he founded the non-profit organization The Trivedi Foundation™ to work with major research institutes and universities in order to establish a new scientific paradigm on this planet, through the application of the Trivedi Effect®. In collaboration with scientific researchers from various scientific fields in countries like India, USA, Australia, Canada and Germany, Mahendra Trivedi astonished the world with over 4,000 studies revealing phenomenal results by substantiating his distinct ability through scientific measurement, validation and documentation, eventually leading to several publications in several major peer-reviewed, international journals. Currently, Mahendra Trivedi, Dahryn Trivedi and Master Gopalare known to possess the ability to transmit the “Trivedi Effect®.”

Impact on Agriculture

Mahendra Trivedi transmitted energyto more than 40 different varieties of seeds, crops, plants and plant tissue culture cells without using any chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides or genetic engineering agents. The adaptive and evolutionary changes that occurred in these experiments were purely organic. The crops received only sunlight and water in addition to the energy transmission. Various experiments are being carried out under the “Dapoli Project” on crops like mustard, cow pea, horse gram, peanut, chili, eggplant, watermelon, patchouli, mango, cashew, cotton, okra, soybean and rice.

The observations included an increased yield in crops of up to 500% and an enhanced immunity of more than 600%, including higher resistance to diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, pests and weeds. Also, an improvement in viability and luster by up to 300% was confirmed by bioluminescence tests. There were notable changes in adaptation and morphology. These adaptations were purely natural, unlike gene modifications performed in a laboratory. Biochemical parameters like chlorophyll a & b, auxin IAA and glutathione were greatly improved. These experiments also proved to improve the shelf-life of crops.

Impact on Genetics

Various experiments were conducted on over 40 plant species and 22 bacterial species with the help of DNA fingerprinting tests using RAPD analysis, SSR and 16 S rDNA. The results showed polymorphisms (alterations) in all DNA samples, which were tested with RAPD markers to the values of 69% in plants and 79% in bacteria. Some ongoing plant genetic experiments are being conducted on crops like tomato, brassica, cashew and cotton.

Impact on Microbiology

About 100 bacterial and fungal species were subjected to experiments, including 39 samples of Tuberculosis (mycobacteria). Experiments were also performed on 4 viral species. ThroughMicroscan Walkaway analysis, changes were detected in biochemical characteristics and patterns of antibiotic sensitivity in various pathogenic bacteria. There was an observed reduction in HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and Cytomegalovirus viral loads. Even multiple drug-resistant species of tuberculosis showed a response in sensitivity to antibiotics. Ongoing projects include bacteriology, lyophilized bacteria, ATCC strains from Bangalore Genei, Mycobacteriology and virology.

Impact on Oncology

Endometrial, prostate, and brain cancer cell lines were subjected to various experiments. The observations found in the treated cells showed reverse mutation as cancerous cells from the endometrium and prostate were transformed into non-cancerous cells. In the brain cancer pilot study, Mahendra Trivedi blessed a combination of normal cells and cancerous cells. The energy had the intelligence/selective efficacy to kill the cancerous cells, while at the same time was able to promote the viability of the healthy cells.

Impact on Materials Science

Over 255 metal, ceramic, polymer, organic compound and inorganic compound varieties were subjected to experimentation using diffraction, spectroscopy, chromatography and microscopy techniques. The observed results included alterations in the size and structure of the atom, specific heat, boiling points and melting points. More than 400% of mass-energy inter-conversion was observed. Studies like X-ray diffraction, particle size analysis, surface area determination, electron spin resonance, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, C-H-N-S-O analysis, mass spectroscopy and experiments on remote energy transmissions are currently underway.

Human Wellness

There have been thousands of human testimonials from people partaking in energy transmission programs by the organization Trivedi Master Wellness™, founded by Mahendra Trivedi in 2011. People’s experiences have been life-altering and beyond the scope of modern medicine. Many have reported improvements in their finances, careers, business, and relationships; relief from sleep apnea, sleep disorder, fatigue, chronic fatigue, anxiety, social anxiety, depression, manic depression, stress, ADD, ADHD, and psychosomatic disorders; greater mental peace, calmness, clarity, focus, libido, sexual enjoyment and performance; there have been drastic results in autistic children and those suffering from auto-immune diseases, and many other benefits that could only be attributed to the energy transmissions from Mahendra Trivedi and his wife, Dahryn Trivedi.

Golf History – An Overview

The analysis of history of golf by the historians reveal several fascinating facts which makes us more curious and anxious in knowing the origin and evolution of this fantastic game-‘golf’. Historians are under great dilemma in determining the history and origin of golf because the Chinese history, Dutch history, and Scottish history has evidences regarding the origin of golf in their country.

So historians are in a fix in tracing the history of golf. When we analyze the origin of golf in Chinese history, it is said in their history that the early Chinese people played a game much similar to golf which had the rules almost similar to present day golf. Such a reference is made in a Chinese book called Dongxuan Records. But the Dutch history claims the Dutch as the founders of golf. In Dutch history it is said that in 13th century A.D the Dutch played a game in which the player has a stick and the player hits the ball made of leather similar to a golf ball. The criteria for winning this golf game (in history); is similar to golf in which the player who hits the ball to the target at maximum distance is regarded as the winner.

The history of Scottish people reveals that they played a game much synonymous with golf and the historical golf game they played was called ‘gowf’. The Scotts argue that they are the inventors of golf based on their history and the origin of golf is Scotland. But modern historians believe that this game called ‘gowf’ is not similar to ‘golf’ but it is synonymous to ‘hockey’. But the Scotts still do not agree with it. The Dutch refer to the ancient words in their language like ‘kolf’ the meaning of which may be bat or stick. Further evidences in the history of golf are being continuously analyzed by the historians. They have found out a picture in England which reveals that the history of golf starts from 1340. Of all the courts in the world, the Musselburgh court acts as living historical evidence because it shows that the Scotts played golf quite often right from fifteenth century. The Scottish queen Mary often played this game in the same court.

Recent analysis on the origin and history of golf was made by a Chinese lecturer name professor. Ling Hongling. He says that the origin of golf is traced to China because the Chinese played this game in early eleventh centuries. Golf as per their history was played by the Chinese monarchy named ‘song dynasty’.

But the Scotts say that the present ay golf courts has evolved from Scotland and the reference was Scottish history in which it is said the ancient Scottish golf grounds was featured with 18 cups much synonymous to modern golf courts.

When compared to the ancient equipments the modern equipments are quite advanced. History of golf reveals that the ancient golf players used feather filled leather balls. But now the ball is made of several complex polymers. The clubs have evolved from ordinary wooden clubs in history to plastic and other polymer based ones. Newer designs in golf balls have been found out in 1980s.Several inventions are made in the history of golf which includes metallic tee instead of the ancient wooden tee. In the later days the shafts were made of compounds of graphite instead of wood.

Regular Maintenance of Printers and Copiers Ensures Users’ Health and Safety

Many people worry about the health effects of inhaling the fine powder or fumes from the toner and print cartridges used in modern copiers.

There is a great deal of research data and guidance available from the UK’s Health and Safety Executive (HSE) as well as a series of model risk assessment guidance to help businesses to ensure the well being of their staff.

The materials used in toner powder are an extremely fine powdered ink, made up of a substance called Carbon Black and a polymer.

When a copy is being made the toner is charged. The image to be copied is converted into and mapped charges of the opposite polarity on a special drum in the printer. The toner is then transferred to the paper and “set”, usually by heat acting on the polymer.

There are many different types of toner dependent on their use and in what equipment, so a high speed copier, where the print has to set (or dry) very quickly will use a different carbon black/polymer mix from the mix used in a much slower office printer.

There is an approved workplace exposure limit (WEL) for airborne carbon black of 3.5 mg/m³.

For businesses that want to ensure that their Health and Safety programmes are effective the HSE provides a guidance checklist.

It describes each hazard or danger to assess, such as the possibility of inhaling solvent vapour from chemicals used in inkjet printers, the dangers for the skin of contact with ink and any risks from breathing in emissions from copiers.

It helps define who is at risk, from users of the machine to those responsible for replacing toner cartridges and also gives guidance on any symptoms that might help identify the harm caused.

It also makes clear, however, that it is not harmful to breathe in toner emissions.

According to an analysis by Cambridge University Carbon black is classified as a nuisance dust (a group 2B carcinogen, “possibly carcinogenic to humans”). It reports, however, that animal studies have not revealed any carcinogenic qualities in inhalation tests of carbon black.

However, both sources advise that it is always sensible to make sure that any office copiers and printers are placed in areas where there is adequate ventilation – and, it goes without saying, to ensure there are no trailing wires that could be a trip hazard.

Another aspect of safety is ensuring that electrical equipment is in sound, safe condition with no fraying cables, cables securely tucked into plugs and plugs with covers that are not chipped, broken or showing any tell-dale discolouration that could indicate faulty wiring or ineffective fuses.

Much of this routine checking and maintenance is carried out as part of the service contract which often accompanies the supply of office equipment of this type and can include ensuring that the many thousands of toner cartridges are safely disposed of or recycled each week.

They are widely available in most parts of the UK, such as the Eastern Region, so if your business is in Cambridge, Norwich, Bury St Edmunds or Ipswich for example, there are plenty of copier suppliers that can help.

Historical Development of Automated Sequencing Using the Sanger Method

Automated sequencing has been a technique utilized since the early 1980s. Although the technology has changed dramatically since its first use, the basic chemistry is still commonly used today. It is based on four basic steps: purification of DNA, amplification using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), separation by electrophoresis and analysis.

Sanger’s Dye Terminator Chemistry

Although several methods were developed during the 1970s, the dye-terminator method invented by Fred Sanger is the accepted method used in automated sequencing. The amplification step in PCR combines a mix of raw DNA bases (dNTPs) and bases that cause termination (ddNTPs). The advantage of using ddNTPs is that a number of DNA products amplified during PCR terminate once the ddNTP is added. This creates a series of products that are different by a single base. The end product is a combined soup that contains products ranging from about 19 bases in length up to hundreds of bases, each different by a single base. On separation media, the total number of products would appear as a ladder. In addition, the ddNTPs are labeled to allow for detection.

Initially Radioactivity Was Used in the Dye-Terminator Method

Each ddNTP that represented one of the four DNA bases also contained a radioactive label. The amplified products were separated on media though electrophoresis. Then the media was removed and photographed to view the base sequence of the sample. However, the problem with this method was that there was no way to detect a difference between the ddNTP labeling a G base versus A, C or T. Therefore, it was necessary to amplify the sample in four separate reactions in which only one base ddNTP was present. One tube would terminate only when the sequence had the G base while the other three tubes labeled either A, C or T.

With this in mind, four separate reactions would be loaded separately on the media. Each base would appear as an incomplete ladder. The researcher conducting sequencing would need to draw a line across four separate lanes on the media in order to determine the sequence of all four bases.

Fluorescent Labels Replaced Radioactivity

The requirement of using four lanes to determine one sequence was soon replaced with fluorescent labels on the ddNTPs. Each ddNTP representing one of the four bases was labeled with a different fluorophore that would be detected as a different color: green for As, blue for Cs, red for Ts and yellow for Gs. The need for four lanes was eliminated. This expanded the capacity to sequence samples by four times.

In addition, a system capable of detecting the bases was also developed in the early 1980s, soon after Sanger developed the Dye-Terminator method. Samples were loaded on the same medium initially used for the radioactive method. Then they were fitted into a machine that would run electrophoresis. This provided a second advantage. It was no longer necessary to keep the base ladder on the gel for photographing later. Instead, as each band representing a base reached the end point on the media, the automated machine would photograph the color and send this information to a computer. Once complete, the media was simply discarded appropriately. This allowed more of the amplified products to be determined increasing capacity of the radioactive method an additional two times.

Automated Sequencing Equipment has Evolved

Separation of the radioactive products of DNA amplification was performed using a procedure called electrophoresis. Essentially a reagent called acrylamide was poured between two glass plates where it would polymerize into a gel-like matrix called polyacrylamide. The samples would be loaded into the top of the matrix and electrical current would cause the DNA to migrate through the gel. Small products migrate faster than large products when an electrical current is applied because they incur less resistance.

The same process was used when the first automated sequencers were developed. Over time this technology continued to improve so researchers could determine longer pieces of DNA and load more samples. Overall the technology changed very little until the invention of capillary sequencers. Thin glass capillaries replaced the bulky glass plates. It was no longer necessary to pour gels. Instead, a new polymer was injected automatically each time samples were to be loaded. Even better was the amount of time to run an average sample. Glass plate gel electrophoresis could take more than 12 hours to determine a sequence of 400 or 500 bases. Glass capillaries could do the same job in a little over 2 hours.

Like slab gel (glass plate) electrophoresis, capillary sequencing has continued to develop faster methods of sequencing more samples. The overall output is tremendous when compared to the original automated sequencers.

Today, science has continued to develop better methods for sequencing DNA. Next generation sequencing has the capacity to sequence an entire two megabase genome in a few days. This same job would require even the most high-tech Sanger sequencers months of preparation and processing. This does not mean automated sequencers will be replaced. There is still a great need to sequence shorter pieces of DNA at a substantially lower overall cost.

Electron Spectroscopy For Chemical Analysis of Stainless Steel and Nitinol

Many manufacturing processes require the passivation of the material in order to ensure the surface is inert or non-reactive. With stainless steel, for example, the passivation of the surface helps prevent corrosion or rust. For Nitinol (a nickel-titanium alloy), the passivation of the materials helps prevent corrosion, as well as aids biocompatibility. The passivation of Nitinol will usually deplete the surface of nickel, which can cause severe allergic reactions in the human body.

For materials including stainless steel and Nitinol, whose passivation layers may be quite thin, surface analysis is one of the few techniques capable of providing a chemical analysis of the layer. One of the most commonly used techniques is electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA, also called x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS).

ESCA has a sampling depth of approximately 30 Angstroms and can provide the chemical composition and thickness of the passivation layer. This technique is also cited by the semiconductor industry in specifications for testing the passivation of stainless steels.

The method utilizes an x-ray beam to excite a solid sample, resulting in the emission of photoelectrons. An energy analysis of these photoelectrons provides both elemental and chemical bonding information about a sample surface. The principal advantage of ESCA is its ability to look at a broad range of materials – including polymers, glasses, fibers, metals, semi-conductors and paper – and identify surface constituents as well as their chemical state.

Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis of Stainless Steel
The characteristics used to evaluate passivated stainless steel are the chromium-to-iron and the chromium oxide to iron oxide ratios. Both of these ratios, as well as the thickness of the passivation layer, can be measured using ESCA.

Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis of Nitinol
Nitinol is a shape memory alloy with superelastic properties. However, to be used in medical devices, the alloy must be passivated to prevent corrosion and any possible leaching of nickel into the human body. ESCA is a useful technique for evaluating the passivated Nitinol surface for the presence or non-presence of nickel and determining the thickness of the passivation layer. Nitinol will usually passivate by forming a titanium dioxide layer on the surface.

Learn more about ESCA by visiting: http://www.innovatechlabs.com/analytical-services-esca.htm

Market Trends in Non-halogen Flame Retardants: A JMME Market Analysis

In response to a number of market drivers, manufacturers of non-halogen flame retardant additives and original equipment manufacturers have been challenged to prophecy for their product lines as they consider a future that is clearly undefined and subject to potentially limitless change due to regulatory oversight. However, some key trends have developed over the past few years and these also lead to changes in development direction, product rationalization and introduction, and changes in market requirements. These trends are developing due to the expressed needs within the marketplace for key product requirements including:

– environmental concerns,

– regulatory concerns,

– end user requirements and

– end of life concerns.

Key trends in non-halogen flame retardant additives include:

1) Toxicity findings slow drive in non-halogen flame retardant growth, but could also provide near-term opportunity —

The long awaited toxicological findings for decabromodiphenyl ether and tetrabromobisphenol-A announced in 2005 appear to have affected market interest in alternative materials. While this downward turn has become evident late in 2005, the regulatory scrutiny of halogenated flame retardants is expected to be persistent in the coming years and successive regulatory initiatives are expected. Current civil and regulatory cases concerning perfluorochemicals could provide opportunity for future developments in non-halogen systems as opposed to halogen-free systems; however, this presents a formulating issue for many non-halogen compounders as perfluorochemicals provide anti-drip and external lubrication properties to highly filled compounds.

2) Polymer shifts to polyolefins drive magnesium hydroxide growth —

Magnesium hydroxide use has grown due to shifts in two marketplaces:

– EPDM roofing systems shifting to polyolefin roofing systems, and

– polyvinyl chloride siding to polyolefin siding.

With significant indications that polyolefin resin developments will continue to build upon metallocene capabilities, the polyolefin resin family may offer a wider range for application development based upon resin replacement opportunities. Because processing temperatures of polyolefins are higher than the decomposition temperature of aluminum trihydrate, the growth in polyolefin presents opportunities for magnesium hydroxide growth and the development of other flame retardant systems with higher heat tolerance.

3) Siloxane and boron chemistry may hold key to future —
Siloxane chemistry is under review in many applications and development programs are not limited to any one particular resin system or market application; however siloxane materials provide significant cost and processing hurdles to formulators. The primary benefit of siloxane chemistry is the resilience of siloxane materials and improvements to physical performance they potentially provide to finished products containing non-halogen flame retardant additives.

Boron chemistry is under review with the potential for providing a key mechanism to a universal flame retardant for polymers used in aviation and space vehicles; however, while mechanisms are being considered, routes and materials to achieve successful implementation of those mechanisms are still lagging. Boron chemistry provides excellent opportunity to formulators for reducing smoke development from compounds to meet egress requirements from interior finish.

While both chemistries offer promise for the future, it is unlikely that the time horizon for success is less than 15 years. The key to the trend in development with these chemistries will be improved physical properties and enhanced char performance to reduce smoke and provide better fire protection.

4) Nanocomposites are coming —

Nanocomposite metal hydrates are under development and in limited cases being used commercially. Nanocomposites offer the promise of reducing loading levels and improving performance characteristics in many polymer systems. Nanocomposite technology for magnesium hydroxide could be the key to future opportunity albeit at reduced load levels for the flame retardant additive. The relative impact in other non-halogen flame retardant chemistries is yet to be determined.

5) Recycling and waste reclamation programs —

Two primary programs in the European Community are providing substantial impetus to recycling efforts in very large global consumer markets, WEEE and ELV. WEEE is the European Community directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment which, together with the RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC, became European Law in February 2003, setting collection, recycling and recovery targets for all types of electrical goods. ELV is the European Community directive 2000/53/EC setting end-of-life vehicle recovery and disposal requirements for cars, vans and certain three-wheeled vehicles and establishing limits on the use of hazardous substances in the manufacture of new vehicles and automotive components. There is a cost driver to vehicle producers requiring them to pay all or a significant part of the costs of treating negative of nil value ELVs at treatment facilities by 2007.

The impact of WEEE and ELV programs affect parts producers and original equipment manufacturers around the world because of global manufacturing locations, global alliances and worldwide parts sourcing. As these directives take root in the supply chain in the coming years and over the next decade, it is expected to drive parts design and composition in other geographical areas of the world due to inventory rationalization at OEMs.

To view the full 50-page review of the market drivers and trends for the non-halogen flame retardant market as analyzed by JMME, Inc., please visit the Newsroom on the JMME website.

JMME, Inc., Copyright 2006, All rights reserved.

Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) For Chemical Analysis

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy makes use of the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This spectroscopic technique is mainly used to determine with accuracy the composition of materials (bulk and surface analysis). Certain configurations of new FTIR systems (like FTIR microscopy and grazing-angle FTIR spectroscopy) are especially suitable for the analysis of materials surfaces and chemical mapping/imaging. FTIR is very useful for the analysis of many types of materials (organic compounds, polymers, etc) because this instrument gives molecular information on the compound.

Working principle

Infrared spectroscopy exploits the fact that molecules vibrate at specific frequencies that correspond to discrete energy levels (vibrational modes). These vibrational modes are specific to each molecule, which can be used to identify them accurately.

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy consists in passing through a sample a beam containing many infrared optical frequencies or in reflecting the beam off the sample surface, and simultaneously measuring the light absorbed at each frequency. The infrared signal detected is an interferogram. If needed, this process can be repeated a few times to improve the signal quality and the noise-signal ratio of the final spectrum. An algorithm called the Fourier transform is then used to transform the raw data (interferograms) in a graph (i.e., FTIR spectrum) showing the absorption as a function of the wavenumber. This spectrum contains the “molecular fingerprint” of the sample, which is unique for each material. A comparison of the experimental spectrum with database spectra can then be used to identify or classify the sample.

Industrial applications

FTIR is widely available in the private sector due to its reliability and versatility to analyse many types of samples (solids, liquids, gels, powders). As a matter of fact, FTIR is often the first instrument used to identify a polymer or an unknown organic compound. In electronics and optics, FTIR can identify resins, residues or powders on printed circuits or on lens. In the field of surface coatings, FTIR can confirm the molecular structure of a coating.

Benefits:

– Analyse any type of sample (solids, liquids, gels, powders)
– Bulk and surface analysis
– Gives the molecular composition

Applications:

– Identify unknowns
– Analyse contaminants
– Determine the presence of organic compounds
– Quantitative analysis of concentrations and sample thickness
– Quality control

Methods In Performing Polymer Analysis And Geomembrane Testing

Polymers and plastics are constantly developed and improved in order to maximize their efficiency. There are several companies that can perform tests in special laboratories in order to find out the properties of a specific polymer. Also, those companies can test geomembranes as well, for resistance and strength.

What does polymer analysis involve?

Testing polymers is a very interesting task and it helps determine the physical and chemical properties of them. For example, one of the most important tests is ageing test. During their extensive lifetime, polymers are exposed to various conditions. The most influential factor is the weather. Different weather conditions as well as prolonged exposure to UV can affect the lifespan of a specific polymer. Professional companies are equipped with advanced systems that can accelerate the weathering process in order to find out the flaws of the polymer

Another test gives information about the compounds of the polymer and if the substances are toxic or not. If a specific polymer wants to hit the market and being used in industry on a large scale, it needs to be inoffensive when it interacts with humans.

What does geomembrane testing involve?

Geomembranes are made up of impermeable membranes and they are used in water containment applications, for example. There are tests that can find out the qualities of a specific geomembrane. For example, some tests offer useful information regarding the breaking strength, brittleness temperature, resistance, hardness and volatile properties. The tests are undertaken in special laboratories and help different companies and vendors create very powerful products.

Where can you test your products?

As stated earlier, there are companies that can do these tests. If you are interested, you can even make use of the internet and find out contact details. Those professional companies are equipped with state-of-the-art technologies that offer a full range of services regarding polymer, plastics and geomembrane testing. All that you have to do is to make a phone call and find out more details.

Why do those tests?

Everything that is released on the market has to be thoroughly tested first to make sure that is safe. This happened for decades and this is how various materials and products that are widely used these days were created. By constantly test polymers and plastics for their properties, various companies that produce them can find out useful information and based on this, they can readjust and reinvent the product until it is perfect and can be used safely.

Polymer analysis is very thorough and it is not limited to the two examples given above. For example, a professional company undertakes composite and mechanical testing, failure analysis, chemistry and microscopy testing and so on. All of those are intended to show the weak points of polymers and give detailed information as well. Usually those tests take some time but it really depends on your case. Each customer has different needs and he is being treated differently. Just get in contact with an experienced and serious company and discuss your case at length. A list of solutions will be tailored to meet your specific needs regarding polymer analysis.

Why is Amino Acid Analysis So Important

Amino acid analysis refers to a variety of methodologies which are used to determine the amino acid content of peptides, proteins and other samples. AA’s, of course, are organic compounds which contain an amino group and a carbolic acid group as well as any of many possible side groups. These side groups are typically linked by peptides, forming proteins or compounds which are employed as intermediates in the metabolic process or as chemical messengers within living organisms.

Proteins and peptides are organized as linear polymers; these macromolecules are composed of covalently bonded AA residues. The properties of a given organic molecule (such as a peptide or protein) are determined by the sequence of AA’s present – data which is gathered through amino acid analysis. A peptide is a smaller molecule, often consisting of only a few amino acids. Proteins, by comparison are large and are generally folded into a specific structural model containing a larger number of AA’s.

Identification and quantification of proteins and peptides can be determined through analysis; it is also used to detect atypical AA’s present in a peptide or protein analyzed as well as for the evaluation of fragmentation strategies in peptide mapping applications. Before the analysis proper can be performed, proteins and peptides must be hydrolyzed to separate their constituent amino acids. After hydrolysis, amino acid analysis can be performed in the same manner as is used for free amino acids (such as is done in preparing pharmaceuticals).

The most common methodology for the analysis of AA’s in a sample involved chromatographic separation of the AA’s present. Automated chromatographic instruments with post column derivation are the most commonly used technologies at present; most analysis of amino acids is most commonly done with a liquid chromatograph (low or high pressure) which can generate mobile phase gradients. This procedure separates the AA analytes in the column.

Background contamination is always a concern when performing AA analysis. High purity reagents are absolutely necessary. For instance, low purity hydrochloric acid can contribute to glycine contamination. Analytical reagents are changed routinely every few weeks using only high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade solvents. Potential microbial contamination and foreign material that might be present in the solvents are reduced by filtering solvents before use, keeping solvent reservoirs covered and not placing instruments in direct sunlight.

The accuracy and reliability of the analysis process can be ensures through basic best laboratory practices. The lab must be sterile, instruments installed in a relatively low traffic area and pipettes cleaned (or replaced) and calibrated regularly. Vials containing samples must be opened only when absolutely necessary; contamination by dust can cause elevated glycine, alanine and serine.

Accuracy in AA analysis depends on proper maintenance of the instruments, which should be checked for leaks daily if the equipment is in regular use. The stability of the lamp, detector and the column’s ability to provide proper resolution of individual AA’s should all be checked and filters and other consumables replaced regularly.